Ray totally didn't believe I was defining a bunch of terms.. Well here they are Ray! <.< AP Psychology:
Flashbulb Memory: highly detailed, exceptionally vivid 'snapshots' of the moment and circumstances in which surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) news was heard.
Flashbulb memories have six characteristic features: place, ongoing activity, informant, own affect, other affect, and aftermath.
Encoding: Memory is the ability to encode, store and recall information. Memories give an organism the capability to learn and adapt from previous experiences as well as build relationships.Encoding allows the perceived item of use or interest to be converted into a construct that can be stored within the brain and recalled later from short term or long term memory. Working memory stores information for immediate use or manipulation.
Storage :The human memory has three processes: encoding (input), storage (throughput) and retrieval (output). Storage is the process of retaining information whether in the sensory memory, the short-term memory or the more permanent long-term memory.
Retrieval: To return information in a structured form, consistent with human cognitive processes as opposed to simple lists of data items. It draws on a range of fields including epistemology (theory of knowledge), cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, logic and inference, machine learning and knowledge discovery, linguistics, and information technology.
Short-Term Memory: The capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.
Semantic Encoding: Specific type of encoding in which the meaning of something (a word, phrase, picture, event, whatever) is encoded as opposed to the sound or vision of it. Research suggests that we have better memory for things we associate meaning to and store using semantic encoding
Mnemonics are simply memory aids. Anything you do (any technique you use) to help you remember something can be considered a mnemonic. Example: if you use the phrase "Emma has a dilemma" in order to remember how to correctly spell "dilemma" you are using a mnemonic.
Implicit Memory: Implicit memory, also known as non declarative memory, involves recollection of skills, things you know how to do, preferences, etc., that you don't need to recall consciously. Example: if you know how to ride a bike and you can do so without having to think about it, you are demonstrating implicit memory.
Priming is an acuteness to stimuli because of exposure to a certain event or experience. Example: an individual who has just purchased a new car may now start to notice with more frequency other people driving her same make and model. This person has been primed to recognize more readily a car like hers because of the experience she has driving and owning one.
Recall is simply bringing a thought or idea learned previously, and thus stored in memory into conscious awareness. Example: When you remember something you are actually "recalling" the memory. When you have to complete an essay exam, you are recalling information learned previously. This is different than recognition in which you only need to identify material you learned previously.
Difficulty in learning new information because of already existing information. Example: an English speaking person may have greater difficulty learning Spanish because of his or her tendency to want to apply English grammar to the new language. Some people have a harder time learning how to drive an automatic vehicle because of their preexisting knowledge of how to drive a stick shift. The driver may want to use his or her left foot for the break where they are used to having the clutch. The same person may have learned to drive an automatic more easily without his or her knowledge of a standard car.
Human memory is not as good as people like to think. There are times when you are 100% confident in your memory of something and the reality is, your memory is wrong. This is often seen in eye witness testimony situations. How is it that 10 people witness a crime and when asked, there are 10 different versions of the crime? According to the misinformation effect, when we witness an event and then get some incorrect information about that event, we incorporate that incorrect information (misinformation) into our memory of the event. The result in an altered memory of the event. You may not want to believe this one, but it's true and we are all susceptible to it.
The term long-term memory refers to the unlimited capacity memory store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time. By saying "lengthy periods of time" we mean that it is possible for memories in LTM to remain there for an entire lifetime. In addition, there are three types of memories that can be stored in LTM: procedural memory, semantic memory, and episodic memory.
Automatic Processing is sort of like muscle memory. When you start to do something that you have done many times, and you can complete it successfully without giving it any thought, that's automatic processing. It can actually be disruptive to begin to think about the process once it has started automatically. If you have ever played the piano, or knitted a scarf, you know how your hands seem to move on their own while your mind goes somewhere else. When you look back at your music or yarn, you might lose your place and stumble over the next steps, interrupting the automatic process.
Learning or storing (encoding) that requires attention and effort. We have the capacity to remember lots of things without putting forth any effort. However, there are lots of times when we must practice, rehearse, and try to remember things. When we engage in any technique to help remember information better, we are engaging in effortful processing.
Spacing Effect: The fact that humans and animals more easily remember or learn items in a list when they are studied a few times over a long period of time, rather than studied repeatedly in a short period time .
Serial Position Effect:
This term is a memory-related term and refers to the tendency to recall information that is presented first and last (like in a list) better than information presented in the middle. Sometimes I experience this when I go to the store and don't write a list. My wife tells me the things we need and I try to remember them by rehearsing them (I say the list over and over). This keeps the information in short-term memory longer. But in the time it takes me to get to the store and then with all the distractions of getting items, looking at labels, etc., I tend to remember the items that were first on the list (probably because I rehearsed them so much) and the last items (probably because those were the ones I heard most recently) but always forget the ones in the middle. I guess I should write them down, huh?
Visual Encoding refers to the process by which we remember visual images. For example, if you are presented a list of words, each shown for one second, you would be able to remember if there was a word that was written in all capital letters, or if there was a word written in italics. Information that was encoded visually is very fleeting, and tends to be forgotten very easily. We are usually better able to remember information that we hear, or those that are relevant to us.
Iconic Memory: Iconic memory is the visual sensory memory (SM) register pertaining to the visual domain. It is a component of the visual memory system which also includes visual short term memory(VSTM) and long term memory (LTM).
Explicit memory, also known as declarative memory is a type of long-term memory in which we store memories of fact. In addition, explicit memory is divided further into semantic and episodic memories (please look those up for complete definitions). So, if you have memories of things such as when Columbus sailed to America or what day and time your baby brother was born, you have explicit memories.
Recognition is identifying something you learned previously and is therefore stored in some manner in memory. Example: taking a multiple choice test requires you to identify material you learned and not necessarily "recall" information learned previously.
Mood-Congruent Behavior means that expressed actions are consistent with how one feels. If someone has a worried look on their face, others might view that person as being anxious; a bright and open attitude will be seen in a happy person. In these cases, people are associating the person's behavior (the face being made) to their mood.
Retroactive interference is when a person has difficulty recalling old information because of newly learned information. Example: you may have difficulty skiing because of recently learning how to snowboard.
Source Amnesia: explicit memory disorder in which someone can recall certain information, but they do not know where or how they obtained it.
A mental grouping of similar things, events, and people that is used to remember and understand what things are, what they mean, and what categories or groups they belong to. Example: if I say to you, "think of a car," the concept, "car" will evoke some ideas in your head about what a car is and what types of characteristics it contains -- does your concept of a car have black tires, two doors, four doors, is it red, white, black, etc.?
A rule-of-thumb strategy for making more efficient decisions. Example: you may be an experienced driver. Over time you have learned that when you come to a stop sign, you need to come to a complete stop or you will get a ticket. Now, whenever you come to a stop sign, you have to give very little thought at all to what behavior is required; you see the stop sign, you stop. You have a heuristic for stop signs.
When the solution to a problem comes to you in an all-of-a-sudden manner, it can be considered insight. More specifically, insight can be defined as the sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. This is the opposite type of solution to trial-and-error solutions.
A tendency for a person to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions. For example, I know someone who says that all Republicans are only concerned with healing the upper class at the expense of those who are not wealthy. He likes to identify Republican politicians who try to pass, for example, tax laws that help the upper class, which confirms his position. However, when some Republican politician proposes a law that favors those in the lower socioeconomic class, he says that it is just a smoke screen -- that they know it will never pass and only do it to make themselves look like they care when they actually don't.
Over Confidence: human tendency to be more confident in one's behaviours, attributes and physical characteristics than one ought to be
Type of statistical procedure that is conducted to identify clusters or groups of related items (called factors) on a test. Example: when you take a multiple choice Introductory Psychology test, a factor analysis can be done to see what types of questions you did best on and worst on (maybe they did best on factual types of questions but really poorly on conceptual types of questions). That wasn't too bad was it?
Standford-Binet Intelligence Test:
Alfred Binet (in collaboration with Theodore Stanford) was instructed by the French government to design a test that would identify children who would have problems with school and or learning the material that was designed for children in their own age range. a widely used intelligence test.
They then set out to create a test that measures a child's mental age (the average mental ability for a child of a specific chronological age). They could use this mental age as a guide, to see if, for example, a 5 year old has "normal" intelligence, which would be a mental age of 5, or a mental age that was above or below. The test does not identify why children perform above or below a specific age range, only at what mental age a child performs. The test does however, according to its creators, measure how well a child of a specific age will be able to handle school work designed for children of similar age.
Reliability refers to the extent to which a test or other instrument is consistent in its measures. For example, a weight scale can be judged reliable if measures for a 25-pound weight do not vary over time or change for subsequent weightings. Reliability is an important concept in science. If a test is not reliable, we cannot find the answers to our questions. Imagine placing a 25-pound weight on a scale and getting a different answer every time. What purpose would the scale serve? In fact, we most likely would question if indeed the scale is measuring weight or something entirely different. Unreliability would prohibit us from reporting our findings simply because they are not reliable.
Content validity is an important research methodology term that refers to how well a test measures the behavior for which it is intended. For example, let's say your teacher gives you a psychology test on the psychological principles of sleep. The purpose of this test is to measure your knowledge or mastery of the psychological priniciples of sleep, right? If the test does indeed measure this, then it is said to have content validity -- it measures what it is supposed to measure.
While our experiences and our situations have tremendous impacts on who we are, how we act, etc., our genetic makeup is also important in determining these factors. Therefore, our heritability, or the extent to which differences in a trait can be attributed to our genetic makeup is important in trying to understand human behavior. Also, keep in mind that genes and environment do not occur in isolation, but interact with each other. As a result, you are who you are, and you act and think the ways you do because of the combination of your heritability and your environment.
A prototype is the BEST example or cognitive representation of something within a certain category. Prototypes are used to enhance memory and recall, since you can keep a prototype of something and then match new, similar things to the prototype in order to identify, categorize, or store this new thing. For example, if I ask you to imagine a dog, what do you imagine? You may consider a German Shepard your prototype for a dog by which you compare all other dogs. So if you see another dog, you could say that other dog is small (compared to your prototype), heavy, ugly, beautiful, etc.
An algorithm is a set of instructions for solving a problem or completing a process, often used in math. The steps in an algorithm are very precise and well-defined. If your problem is a headache, your algorithm might look like this:
1) Have you been hit on the head? If yes, seek medical attention; if no, go to next step.
2) Have you taken a pain reliever? If no, take one now; if yes go to next step.
3) Have you eaten today? … and so on until it would end with wither a solution or advice to seek medical attention.
Algorithms often take the form of a graph with a square for each step and arrows pointing to the possible directions from each step.
Many people approach problems in similar ways all the time even though they can't be sure they have the best approach or an approach that will even work. Doing this is an example of mental set -- a tendency to approach situations the same way because that way worked in the past. For example, a child may enter a store by pushing a door open. Every time they come to a door after that, the child pushes the door expecting it to open even though many doors only open by pulling. This child has a mental set for opening doors.
People are often very limited in the ways they think about objects, concepts, and people. When something is thought of only in terms of its functionality, then the person is demonstrating functional fixedness. This type of thinking is narrow and limited, often inhibiting the problem solving process.
Social psychologists Ross, Lepper and Hubbard found that some people have a tendency or unwillingness to admit that their foundational premises are incorrect even when shown convincing evidence to the contrary. Belief Perseverance is this tendency to reject convincing proof and become even more tenaciously held when the belief has been publicly announced to others.
For example, members of the Jonestown cult made a public admission of their loyalty to Jim Jones by selling all their possessions and following him to Guyana. Even though they later experienced irrational manipulation and abuse, they stayed to the point of committing mass suicide when he told them to do so.
The smallest units of speech that convey meaning. All words are composed of at least one morpheme. For example, the word "work" is a single morpheme, but the word "working", which implies some action, is made up of two morphemes ("work" and "ing").
One Word Stage/ Two words/ Telegraphic Speech
When you take an intelligence test you get an overall score and several specific scores. The overall score that you received, which is measured by all of the tasks on the test, is considered the representation of your general intelligence.
Creativity is the ability to produce new ideas.
aptitude refers to a person's capacity to learn. It should come as no surprise then that an aptitude test is a test designed to predict learning capacity for a particular area or particular skills. For example, the SAT is a test designed to predict how well you will perform in college (I won't get into the good and/or bad of this test). It is not designed to measure how will you did in high school (that would be an achievement test) but how capable you are of learning all the new skills necessary to do well in college.
Consistency and objectivity of how tests are administered and scored. In order to compare one person to another on a test, it is important that they take the test under the same conditions and the same scoring procedure is applied to both. For example, suppose one person took a math test in a thunderstorm and the other in a silent proof room. Based on the test scores, could we really say who was better in math? Or is it fairer to say that the thunderstorm condition confounded that person's score? Let us further say that we applied different scoring criteria to each of the test takers. Could we still say who was better in math? This is way standardization is so important in testing.
All tests are designed to measure something; hopefully something specific. If the test does indeed measure what it is intended to measure, then we can say that the test is valid (or has validity). In psychology, tests are usually judged according to their validity and their reliability (if the test produces similar results each time the test is taken). Tests that are valid are also reliable. However a test might be reliable without it being valid. For example, let's say you go to class and your teacher says that he or she has learned that the weight of your head determines the likelihood of you getting cancer. So, each day at the beginning of class the teacher weighs everybody's head on a scale. This continues for one week. Across each day of the week, the weight of your head is going to remain approximately the same; thus we can conclude that the test is reliable. However, is this test valid; does it measure what it is intended to measure (that the weight of your head predicts the likelihood of you getting cancer)? The answer is....NO! So, although the test is reliable, it is not necessarily valid (it does NOT measure what it was designed to measure).
Predictive Validity/Criterion-related Validity:
The relationship between test scores and later performance on a knowledge, skill or ability. SATs are said to have predictive validity; that is, there is a relationship between scores on the SAT and an individual's performance in college. The higher the predictive validity, the more useful the test.
How do you know when it is time to get a glass of water? You know because you get this feeling of being thirsty which motivates you to reduce the thirst by drinking water. This is what happens according to drive reduction theory. According to this theory, some physiological need (need for water) occurs that creates a state of tension (you feel thirsty) which in turn motivates you to reduce the tension or satisfy the need (drink water).
The environment is critical not only in our development, but in determining almost all of our behaviors; why we act the way we do all the time. Incentives are those stimuli in the environment, both positive or negative, that motivate our behavior. These things pull us to behave in certain ways (as opposed to drive which pushes us from within). For example, if you are offered money to perform a certain behavior, the money is the incentive to perform that behavior.
Set Point Theory:
A set point is a theory that states everyone's body has a genetically determined range of weight and temperature that their body will try to maintain to stay at optimal health. This means if Susan has a weight set point of 136 pounds, her body will try to stay around that weight. If she eats less and exercises more, her body's metabolism will slow down. If Susan eats more and exercises less, her body's metabolism will speed up. This does not mean Susan can't ever weigh over 145 pounds or under 120 pounds. It means that her body will attempt to compensate for Susan's eating habits in order to stay in that range.
Proponents of this theory encourage individuals to stay at their body's set point and to accept it despite social pressures to be thin. They believe that the reason people have difficulty losing or gaining weight is because their weight goals are outside of their set point range.
Anorexia nervosa (often referred to as just anorexia) is a very serious, pathological loss of appetite and self induced limiting of food intake. Anorexia nervosa can lead to severe psychological, emotional, and physical problems, including death. This disorder most often affects females (although males do suffer from anorexia as well), and is typically associated with a tremendous amount of concern for and misperception of one's own body image.
People with this eating disorder engage in binge eating and purging behaviors. What this means is that a person who suffers from Bulimia Nervosa will have episodes during which they eat tremendous amounts of food (usually foods that are high in calories) and then go vomit or use laxatives to lose weight. While there are many men who suffer from this eating disorder, the majority of bulimics are women in their teens and mid twenties. Like other eating disorders, there tends to be a relationship between social views of attractiveness and bulimia; cultures that identify being thin with being attractive have higher rates of bulimia (of course there are many alternative perspectives on the causes and treatments for bulimia).
This is the chemical that makes men, MEN. Just kidding….testosterone is a very important male sex hormone. Although it is considered a male sex hormone, women do have it, just in lesser quantities than men. As a fetus is developing, it is testosterone that promotes the growth of male sex organs and other male-specific features. It's also responsible for the male-specific changes that occur during puberty such as deepening in the voice and increased facial hair.
There are a variety of different types of leaders and leadership styles. None of these leadership styles is right for all people or situations. One works in one situation may not work in another. One type of leadership is task leadership, which is goal-directed or goal-oriented type of leadership. This type of leadership is good when you need to stay focused on goals and move as a unit toward common objectives.
Theory X/Y Leaders:
According to Douglas McGregor, there are two categorizations of what motivates people: Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X suggests that people work for extrinsic reasons -- in other words, money! This theory is linked to management and leadership, and assumes that workers are lazy, selfish, and generally sloppy at their work. As a result, managers with this approach believe their employees must be given really simplistic tasks, little independence or freedom, and tasks that do not involve much creativity.
According to Douglas McGregor, there are two categorizations of what motivates people: Theory X and Theory Y. Theory Y suggests that people are motivated for intrinsic reasons as opposed to extrinsic reasons. What this means is that they are working for reasons that go well beyond money and include reasons such as feeling satisfied with themsleves, increasing self esteem, helping others, etc. This is really an approach toward management and leadership. A manager that takes a Theory Y approach gives workers more freedom so that they can be independent, strive for success, and be more creative.
this theory of emotion states that an emotion is produced when some stimulus triggers the thalamus to send information simultaneously to the brain (specifically, the cerebral cortex) and the autonomic system (including the skeletal muscles). Thus, the stimulus is perceived at both a physiological and the subjective level.
Catharsis is a psychodynamic principle that, in its most basic sense, is simply an emotional release. Further, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that aggressive or sexual urges are relieved by "releasing" aggressive or sexual energy, usually through action or fantasy. For example, a young male may watch a film in which an attractive woman engages in sexual behavior. The young male may become sexually aroused from this and subsequently frustrated because of his inability to act out his sexual desires. To release this sexual tension, the young male may go outside and play sports or engage in fantasies about himself and the woman.
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon is the tendency people have to quickly adapt to a new situation, until that situation becomes the norm. Once the new situation is normal, another new experience is needed -- it constantly raises the level for what is new or exciting as each new thing becomes the norm.
For instance, you may live on a small amount of money, say, $1,000 per month. You may think "if I had more money I would always be able to pay all my bills and still buy other things." Then you get a big raise and you start making $3,000 per month. At first this would be a very exciting new experience. After a while, however, when all the new income has been allotted to pay some bill, you might again start to think, "if I had more money.... " You had a new situation, you adapted to it, and it became your normal.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS):
Hans Selye was a young medical doctor who noticed that a lot of people were experiencing similar types of symptoms but did not have any physical cause for the problems. Over time, he came to realize that the problems were caused by stress. He later determined that the body has a natural, adaptive response to stress that is composed of three stages: alarm, resistance, exhaustion. When a person gets to the exhaustion stage, they may experience severe physical problems.
Lymphocytes are white blood cells that travel in the blood stream and defend the body from abnormal cells, disease-causing bacteria and viruses. Large Lymphocytes, called natural killer (NK) cells, recognize abnormal cells and destroy them by releasing toxic chemicals. Small Lymphocytes, the T cells and B cells, recognize foreign proteins called antigens that are found on bacteria and viruses and then release toxic chemicals to destroy them.
Blood tests that show Lymphocyte numbers as higher than normal usually mean the presence of a virus infection. For example, when someone has AIDS (acute immune deficiency syndrome) or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection, the T cells are destroyed by the invading virus until the body cannot protect itself from other infections. This person is vulnerable to getting very sick even from the common cold because T lymphocytes are not available to provide the needed protection.
A behavior that is genetically programmed into an entire species. Thus, the behavior is not the result of learning, and can be seen across members of a species. For example, there are specific nest building behaviors that are part of different species of birds. If you hatch one of these birds in captivity and raise it without any contact with any other members of its species, it will still do those species-specific nest building behaviors.
Masolow's Hierarchy of Needs:
Sexual Response Cycle:
As scientists I guess we need to study everything we can to make sense of it. Leave to us to make sex scientific. Anyway, the sexual response cycle, identified by Masters and Johnson in 1966, includes the stages humans go through during sexual interaction. There are four stages in the sexual response cycle, including the excitement phase, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
Estrogen is one of the sex hormones that is necessary for proper female reproductive functioning as well as the development of secondary female characteristics like breasts, less facial hair than men, etc. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, which produces increased sexual receptivity (i.e., females mammals are more receptive to sex during this phase).
Psychologist David McClelland studied workplace motivation extensively and theorized that workers as well as their superiors have needs that influence their performance at work. One of these needs is Achievement Motivation - which can be defined as an individual's need to meet realistic goals, receive feedback and experience a sense of accomplishment.
For example, employees who are Achievement-Motivated thrive very well in corporations where they receive regular performance evaluations. They feel energized and satisfied with their jobs because goals are set, they are given positive or negative feedback on past behaviors and given some type of rewards if they performed well.
In contrast to task leadership, people with social leadership skills are good at getting members of the team excited about their task, increasing energy, inspiring team spirit, and reducing conflict. Often being a democratic type of leadership, social leaders often produce high performing teams and may be popular with their subordinates…after all, don’t you want to follow a leader that makes you feel enrgized, good about yourself and your effort, and gets the team working effectively?
ames-Lange Theory of Emotion was posed by both James and Lang at approximately the same time (hence the name James-Lange) and suggests emotions are a consequence of our physiological responses to external stimuli followed by identification of the emotion by examining the physical responses. So, some external stimulus produces a physiological response in your body. Then, you examine this physiological response and identify the emotion you are experiencing based on the physiological response. For example, you see a bear in the woods, and you begin to tremble. You then identify the fact that you are trembling and conclude that you are afraid..."I am trembling, therefore I am afraid."
Schachter Two-factor Theory:
This is also known as Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion, after Stanley Schachter. Schachter proposed that human emotions contain two factors or parts: physical arousal and a cognitive label. According to Schachter, both of these elements must be present for you to experience an emotion. Some form of arousal occurs (e.g., increased heart rate, perspiration, etc.), you then put some label on this arousal, and then experience the emotion. For example, imagine playing a physically demanding game like basketball. As soon as you are done with the game (and you are hot, your heart is racing, etc., which is the state of arousal) someone gives you some bad news. In response, you get angry (label the emotion as anger), and feel that anger. The question is, would you have gotten less angry about this news if you were not aroused from playing basketball? According to Schachter, you are probably going to be more angry in the aroused state than if you got the news in a less aroused state.
Subjective Well-Being or SWB refers to a person's own assessment of their happiness and satisfaction with life.
The World Values Survey conducted from 1981 to 2007 measured SWB by asking two questions. The first question deals with people's affect or feeling (Taking all things together, would you say you are very happy, rather happy, not at all happy?). The second question is an intellectual assessment that measures how well their current state is living up to their expectations of what life should be (All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?).
We all have people to whom we compare ourselves. Don't worry, it's natural. But relative deprivation is when you have the perception that you are worse off than these other people you compare yourself to. Having this feeling typically leads to frustration. For example, let's say you have a group of friends you study with (and you tend to compare yourself to them) and on a couple of exams they all do well and you do poorly, even though you all studied the same amount at the same times, etc. You may feel that you are worse off than them because they are doing better than you.
Type A/Type B
A method of behavior modification that uses principles of operant conditioning to change a maladaptive behavior. With this method, a person is presented with visual or auditory information about some internal, involuntary process. The information is actual feedback about the internal process that the person can use to increase control of the internal process. For example, a person suffering from stress can be hooked up to a biofeedback machine that creates a sound whenever the person starts getting stressed (increased heart rate, blood pressure, etc., would cause the machine to produce the sound). By paying attention to the sounds, the person can use relaxation techniques when there are some internal changes due to the stress - even if they are not yet feeling them, the effects can be identified by the machine and then controlled by the person. Over time, the goal is to be able to control these behaviors without the use of the machine
Quick, say whatever comes to your mind when I say the word "marriage". Don't limit or try to evaluate your responses, just say everything that pops into your head. This process is a Freudian (psychoanalytic) method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Regression is another one of the defense mechanisms identified by Freud. According to Freud there are times when people are faced with situations that are so anxiety provoking that they can't deal with it and they protect themselves by retreating to an earlier stage of development. For example, my niece was afraid to go to school for the first time (first day of school can be very scary) so she began to exhibit very childish behaviors like throwing a tantrum, crying, not letting go of her mother's leg, and even wetting her pants.
A defense mechanism where an individual acts in a manner opposite from his or her unconscious beliefs. A homosexual who joined a gay hate group would be an example of reaction formation. Freud believed that defense mechanisms helped us cope with the world around us by letting us repress our deepest unconscious fears.
Rationalization is a defense mechanism identified by Freud. According to Freud when people are not able to deal with the reasons they behave in particular ways, they protect themselves by creating self-justifying explanations for their behaviors. For example, if I flunk out of school because I didn’t study properly it might be so hard for me to deal with that I rationalize my behaviors by saying that I simply didn't have enough time to study because I have a full-time job, a baby at home, and so many other demands on my time.
Rorschach Inkblot Test:
There are many types of projective tests, but the most widely used is the Rorschach Inkblot Test. In this test individuals are shown various ambiguous inkblot pictures and asked to describe what they see. By analyzing the responses given by the people, psychologists attempt to understand the person's inner feelings, thoughts, and issues.
Eyesenck's 2 personality factors
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Unconditional Positive Regard
The Big Five Factors
Internal/External Locus of control
Generlized Anxiety Disorder
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Counterconditioning is a type of therapy based on the principles of classical conditioning that attempts to replace bad or unpleasant emotional responses to a stimulus with more pleasant, adaptive responses. For example, do you remember the case of Little Albert - the boy that John Watson conditioned to fear little white rats? Well, if Watson attempted to "uncondition" the fear response to the rats, he would be engaging in counterconditioning - attempting to replace the unpleasant response (fear) to the rats with a more pleasant response (happiness).
Drugs for Psychological Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Dependent Personality Disorder
psychology involving assessment and treatment of people with psychological disorders. In addition, clinical psychologists do conduct some research and experimentation, with topics that focus primarily on practical applications (such as developing new treatments, prevention for addictions, etc.).
Cognitive therapy is a form of therapy developed by Aaron Beck who suggested that our beliefs and perceptions influence our emotional responses to the world around us. According to cognitive therapy, our negative thought patterns (not unconscious conflicts or early life traumas as psychoanalysis suggests) cause depression, anxiety and some other mental disorders. Cogitive Therapy helps patients by making them aware of these beliefs, how they produce so many problems, and then working to change these dysfunctional beliefs.